武汉放水的场子2020：Analysis and Future Prospects of the Strategic Projection Capability of the United States and Russia
Analysis and Future Prospects of the Strategic Projection Capability of the United States and Russia
Il-76 transport aircraft.Source: World Wide Web
Earlier this year,The new crown pneumonia ravages the European continent.At the most tense moment of the epidemic,Russia dispatched 15 Il-76 transport aircraft carrying a large number of epidemic prevention materials and medical staff to assist Italy,While extending a helping hand, it demonstrated its strong strategic transportation and delivery capabilities to the world.at the same time,The United States and Poland have also recently signed an agreement,Increase the number of American troops in Poland and consolidate Polish military bases,Want to enhance fast maneuverability.What is the intention of the United States and Russia to focus so much on the development of strategic projection capabilities?What are the strategic considerations behind it?
Global deterrence,Strategic delivery becomes the commanding height
Strategic projection capability is an important indicator of military power.Generally speaking, it is through large vehicles and aerial platforms, etc.Put equipment, materials, personnel, etc. to other places,This basic ability determines the size of the strike range, the size of the strike intensity, and the strike duration, etc.It is an important symbol of a country’s military capabilities,It is the core content of national strategic capabilities.In recent years,The United States, Britain, Russia and other countries are increasingly paying attention to the strategic projection capability as the focus of military development and an important part of national defense and strategic deterrence.And the reason why they were able to get the title of “global power”,It is that they have global strategic projection capabilities.Since the end of the cold war,The air strategic projection force has played an important role in many local wars.
In the Iraq war,The U.S. military can send a large number of troops and equipment to the front line from the homeland in a short time.Give the opponent an effective blow,It depends on its strong strategic transportation capacity and the corresponding large-scale air operations.at the same time,In 2015,In order to expand Russia’s influence in the Middle East,Intervened in the war in Syria,And decided to deploy S-400 air defense missiles in Syria,Arrived by An-124 transport plane only one day later,Its high efficiency and speed are evident.Throughout the war,An-124 transport aircraft is used as an “air express line”,Performed more than 1,000 day and night missions between Russia and Syria,It has provided solid logistical support for reversing the situation in Syria.
The ability of aerial strategic projection not only plays a pivotal role in actual combat,It also guarantees the freedom of movement of the army,Especially the important foundation of national sea power.Alfred Mahan, the founder of modern sea power theory, pointed out in the book “The Influence of Sea Power on History”,The basis of the existence of a country’s sea power is the naval conditions of having maritime communication lines not controlled by other countries.And the smooth sea shipping conditions,The core lies in the country’s ability to deliver and replenish troops and supplies to the navy and merchant fleet in a timely manner.To maintain the safety of trade and the passage of air routes.The aerial strategic projection capability provides a strong strategic support for this guarantee.Take advantage of fast and mobile delivery capabilities,The ocean-going fleet has the confidence to complete various military missions and the confidence for sudden major non-military operations such as emergency rescue and disaster relief, international peacekeeping, humanitarian rescue, and overseas evacuation.
In the context of globalization,The international political and economic structure is becoming more and more complex,What followed was the treacherous geopolitics.As a symbol of a regional power,The implementation of rapid delivery to neighboring countries and regions and intercontinental is a strategic goal that all countries are striving to pursue.It has the ability to maintain national strategic opportunities and expand national interests under globalization conditions.At the same time, it is an important condition for a country to be eligible to participate in global political, diplomatic and economic activities.To adapt to the wave of globalization,The military powers such as the United States and Russia continue to adjust their military strategies,Repeated argumentation and research on multiple strategic frameworks,Powerful air transportation and delivery capabilities are increasingly seen as the basis for implementing rapid deployment of forces, gaining the initiative, and striving for opportunities.Based on this, a sound air strategic projection command system has been established.
Excellent ability,The U.S. and Russia focus on strategic project development
Although strategic projection capabilities are now the focus of military development in various countries,However, military powers such as the United States and Russia did not prioritize strategic projection capabilities from the beginning.They have all experienced the bitterness of lack of quick action ability in actual combat.During the Iraq War,Since Turkey does not provide transit routes,The 4th Division of the US Air Force was forced to diverted to Kuwait to enter the battlefield.The so-called soldiers are extremely fast,Time is an important condition that triggers uncertainties in the battlefield.Seizing the time increases the odds of winning.During the Kosovo War,Russia wants to project combat power to Yugoslavia by land,However, some countries were forced to give up because they did not provide transit channels.An important strategic opportunity was lost.same,In the 2008 war against Georgia,The Russian army exposed its lack of mobility,This led to Russia’s military reforms to this day.A series of results of its reforms were also fully demonstrated in the subsequent Ukrainian crisis and the Syrian war.
Back in World War II,The strategic projection capability demonstrated great potential in the Pacific War in which the US military fought against Japan.The U.S. Air Force believes: “One battalion was delivered within 24 hours,It is more important than the delivery of a division in 10 days.”Based on,The US military proposes to have the ability to deploy 1 brigade in 4 days, 1 division in 5 days, and 5 divisions in 30 days.The United States’ global strike capability mainly depends on its global strategic projection capabilities.The U.S. military has more than 2,000 military transport aircraft of various types,Among them, there are more than 400 large military transport aircraft.In 1987, the US Army established the Transportation Command,After continuous evolution,The command of the command over strategic projection is centralized and unified step by step.till this moment,The U.S. military formed a strategic airlift force with the 18th and 19th Air Forces,Among them, the 60th and 305th Air Mobility Wings under the 18th Air Force,The 26th, 463th and 437th Airlift Wings,装备有C-5B\C-17、KC-10A运输机、加油机等共230余架；第19航空队则隶属于空军教育与训练司令部，It mainly implements joint medical services, combat readiness, and air force security assistance training tasks.
As an important supporting force for the third “offset strategy” of the US military,The United States has built a global strategic delivery system including 10 Nimitz-class nuclear-powered super aircraft carrier battle groups, c17 Globemaster, C5 Galaxy transport aircraft, B2 strategic bomber, global anti-missile system, and Tomahawk cruise missiles.And relying on hundreds of overseas military bases,It ensures that its military can reach any battlefield in the world as quickly as the US blockbuster shows.The global logistics supply chain, developed communication network and complete infrastructure network,Ensure that US strategic deterrence covers any hot spot in the world.
In September 2015,An An-124 transport aircraft and several fighter jets of the Russian Air Force are in a dense formation,Direct flight from Russia to Syria.The national radars along the way only distinguished one target,I thought it was just a large passenger plane,When they reacted it was too late,The Russian army has gained a firm foothold,A wonderful strategic projection military operation was staged.In recent years,Russia aims at asymmetric advantages,Efforts to build a strategic delivery system with “large number of transport aircraft, strong capabilities, and quick response”,Proposed “1 day global arrival,Covering the whole of Europe in 5 hours,One hour to cover Eastern Europe’s strategic goals.
In August 2015,Russian President Vladimir Putin signed an order to establish an aerospace army,Directly commanded by the Russian General Staff.up to now,The strength of the Russian Air Force is second only to the U.S. Army,Equipped with nearly 400 military transport aircraft of various types,Including 100 Il-76 and 10 An-124,More than the sum of European NATO countries,It accounts for 9% of the global total.Simultaneously,According to the Russian Satellite News Agency,The Russian United Aviation Manufacturing Group has started the research and development of a new super heavy military transport aircraft.And consider further expansion of the An-124 fleet.In contrast to other countries,8 C-17 large transport aircraft leased by the United Kingdom and C-130 and A400m tactical transport aircraft from other countries,Neither quantity nor quality can be the same as Russia.thus,Some foreign media pointed out thatIf there is a strategic opportunity,Russia plans to reclaim parts of Eastern Europe.
Information age,Strategic projection for the future
Under the conditions of information,The aerial strategic projection capability has gradually become an important symbol of a country’s comprehensive national strength and military strength.It has become an indispensable force support for joint air operations and non-war military operations.As strategic delivery equipment tends to be high-speed, intelligent and unmanned,New technologies and concepts such as artificial intelligence, big data, satellite navigation and 5G networks will become indispensable technical support for strategic delivery capabilities.To meet the needs of global strategy, the U.S. militaryThe development plan of shipping, air transportation, “pre-set” and “three-in-one” strategic delivery force formulated,It is relying on the unattainable advantages of the United States in technology,This makes it possible for the U.S. military to “exist at the forefront” globally.
Strategic presetting capability is a new development of modern strategic projection methods.At the beginning of the Cold War,US President Truman signed an executive order,Instruct the Ministry of National Defense and the Ministry of Commerce to jointly draft a plan for the deployment of civil aviation transportation when the country needs it.after this,In order to strengthen the reserve force guarantee,Developed a recruitment plan for the civil aviation reserve team,Divide local civil aviation into 3 levels,80 civil aviation aircrafts are used for the first level recruitment,238 civil aviation aircraft were recruited in the second level,379 civil aviation aircrafts were recruited for level three.Do not fight unprepared battles,Can only be invincible.The strategic presetting is precisely to provide strong back-up for battlefield facilities, equipment and materials and support forces during the war preparation stage.It provides a strong support for rapid deployment and advance operations.
As the exploration ability continues to deepen,Space has become a new battlefield for countries to compete,American scholar Friedman proposed: “Who controls the space,Who controls the ocean; who controls the ocean,Who controls the global business model; who controls the global business model,Who is the richest country in the world; who is the richest country in the world,Who can control the space.”The space field has huge military value and broad economic and scientific research prospects.It has gradually become an important strategic projection demand for national security and development.however,The space strategic projection technology is high,Complex organization and implementation,A higher degree of military-civilian integration and more novel and high-end cutting-edge technologies are required.therefore,Occupy the advantage of space strategic projection,It won the absolute strategic initiative.
Strategic projection capability is related to the strength of a country’s combat capability.Military powers such as the United States and Russia choose to give priority to development,It has its own strategic considerations.Strategic delivery capabilities require the continuous introduction of science and technology and new platforms,And information technology is also a force multiplier for strategic aerial delivery capabilities.thus,Strategic delivery capabilities and technological development under the conditions of information technology,It will present a new look of mutual promotion and mutual penetration.(Yang Junxiang, Feng Hua, He Songze, Shen Qiyou)